Is depression a dysfunctional reaction to something considered 'normal', or a normal reaction to something dysfunctional?

I find it improbable that there happens to be in these modern times, a pandemic of neurochemical deficit in westernised populations giving rise to depression.

What I would like to know is:

Why is depression less prevalent in more traditional societies?

Is a neurochemical deficit (ie serotonin, dopamine etc) a symptom of depression rather than a cause? If it is, then are we mistakenly treating it as a cause? Are we treating the wrong thing by prescribing more chemicals (antidepressants)?

Is depression really an illness, or is it an indicator of something more fundamentally wrong, external to ourselves (illness in society maybe?)

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It's a dysfunction; but, not a reaction to anything exterior. It's usually a chemical or electrical in the brain.

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